Your doctor or lab may have different instructions that supersede the above.
Dysbiotic anaerobic bacteria in the gut convert the amino acid tryptophan into
The indole is absorbed from the gut and processed in the liver via phase 1
into 3-hydroxy indole, and then via the phase 2 glucuronidation pathway into
indole glucuronidate, which is excreted by the kidneys.
Elevated levels of indican suggest:
Putrification of maldigested or malabsorbed protein,
possibly due to hypochlorhydria.
Bowel toxemia due to overgrowth of anaerobic bacteria (dysbiosis),
possibly leading to candidiasis and leaky gut syndrome.
High protein intake or tryptophan supplementation.
Unless specifically noted above, references used in the construction of this web
page include the following:
Lecture notes from Functional Medicine University.
Lecture notes from Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine.
Lecture notes from the University of Tennessee graduate programs in
Chemistry and Biochemistry.